An Atom is the smallest part of an element which can take part in a chemical
reaction. The atom consists of three fundamental particles,
The Proton which has mass of approximately 1 atomic mass unit and a
The Neutron which has a mass of approximately 1 atomic mass unit and no
The Electron which has a mass 1/1840 of the proton and a negative
Each Elements is made up of one kind of atom only.
Just over one hundred different kinds of atoms are known.
Ninety two of these elements are naturally occurring (i.e. they are found on
the earth), and the remainder have been made artificially in nuclear reactors.
The Atomic Configuration is the arrangement of atoms or groups in a
The Atomic Mass of an atom is the total number of protons and neutrons which
are present in the nucleus of the atom. The reference atomic mass unit is
one-twelfth of the mass of the Carbon-12 isotope of carbon. The mass of
Carbon-12 is defined as 12.000000 atomic mass units (amu).
One amu. is 1.66*10-27kg.
The Atomic Mass Number of an atom is the total number of protons and
neutrons in the nucleus of the atom.
Chlorine consists of a mixture of two Isotopes.
The first isotope has a mass number of 35, and its nucleus contains 17
protons and 18 neutrons and
The second isotope has a mass number of 37, , and its nucleus contains
17 protons and 20 neutrons.
The observed atomic weight of chlorine is 35.46.
This indicates that chlorine is a mixture of these two isotopes, and that
the isotope with mass number 35 is the more abundant atom present.
Indeed, the isotope of mass number 35 is approximately three times more
abundant than the isotope of mass number 37.
The Atomic Number of an element is the number of protons or positive charges
which are present in the nucleus of the atoms of that element.
Atomic Orbitals are the specific regions in space around the nucleus of an
atom in which the electrons are most likely to be found. An atomic orbital is
fully described by its Quantum
To explain why the electrons do not loose energy continuously Niels Bohr
suggested that the electrons are confined to specific shells which have fixed
energy levels. However, because of the Heisenberg
Uncertainty Principle, the locations of these shells about a nucleus cannot
be rigidly defined. Thus, the atomic orbitals are diffuse regions in space
around the nucleus of an atom in which the electrons are most likely to be
The exact nature of each atomic orbital is described in detail its set of
Quantum Numbers, each of which describes a different aspect of the shell.
Chemistry is concerned with the structure of atom only in terms of the three
atomic particles (i.e. the proton, the neutron and the electron).
It is now known that these atomic particles are themselves composed of
sub-atomic particles (i.e. the quarks and leptons). These sub-atomic particles
are also called the fundamental particles or elementary particles.
However, this further detail of the structure of the nucleus of the atom has
no chemical consequences and will not be considered further in this text.
The Atomic Radii is the calculated distance between the atomic nuclei in a
The Atomic Spectra of an element are the lines which are present at
characteristic wavelengths in the light emitted from an electric arc between
electrodes of that element. Each line (i.e. each specific wavelength) in the
spectrum corresponds to the energy difference between two orbitals in the atom.
According to the quantum theory, the electrons in an atom can only reside in
specific orbitals, each of which has a fixed energy level, and one photon is
emitted for each electronic transition between orbitals.
When an electron drops from an orbital of high energy to one of lower
energy, a photon (i.e. a packet of light) is emitted corresponding to the energy
difference between the orbitals.
Greek philosophers were the first to propose that all matter consists of
very small particles called atoms (Greek atomas, meaning indivisible). No
further progress was made with the development of this atomic theory of matter
until the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when the experimental evidence
needed to support the theory began to accumulate.
In 1803AD, John Dalton proposed his atomic theory in which he held that the
atom was simple, solid and impenetrable. All elements were made up of these
which could not be created nor destroyed,
which were indivisible,
which were identical in the same element, and
which combined in small whole numbers when forming compounds.
The tenets of his atomic theory are known as Dalton's Postulates.
Ninety years later, Pierre and Marie
Curie were to discover and isolate radium, a new element which spontaneously
disintegrated into other elements. This proved that the atoms of one element at
least were not indivisible.
From about 1850AD onwards, the study of electric discharge in high vacuum by
Goldstein and others, which was made possible by Callan's work at Maynooth, led
to the discovery of the particles which Stoney named Electrons. These electrons
emanated from any metal used as a cathode in a discharge tube and for this
reason were called rays. Thus, the electron was established as a fundamental
particle of matter.
By convention the charge on the electron was considered negative and in
A Millikan showed by his classic oil-drop experiment that the electron
possessed definite charge and mass.
Since the atom was electrically neutral, the existence of negative charge on
the electron mandated the existence of an equal amount of positive charge. The
problem arose as to the distribution of charge throughout the atom. J JThompson
had proposed that the negative electrons were embedded in the atom at random.
In 1911AD, Sir Ernst Rutherford
used a radioactive source to bombard a thin gold leaf with alpha particles,
which are positively charged (i.e. helium atoms without electrons). Most of
these alpha-particles passed through the thin gold leaf undeflected, some were
deflected outward and a few were deflected back along their own path. He
concluded that the positive charge was concentrated in a small region, called
the nucleus, round which the electrons revolved. Those alpha particles which
were deflected through large angles had come close to nucleus and were repelled
by its concentrated positive charge. Rutherford's model of the atom contained a
revolving electron which according to classical physics should lose energy
continuously and spiral into the nucleus.
Neils Bohr discovered the way in which the electrons travel about the
nucleus. He suggested that an electron could revolve in only certain allowed
orbits. As long as an electron remained in an allowed orbit, it does not lose or
gain energy. The Bohr model was satisfactory in explaining the behaviour of the
electron in the hydrogen atom, but failed with multi-electron elements.
Rutherford suggested that the proton was a second fundamental sub-atomic
particle in the nucleus, and he hinted that a neutral particle might also exist.
In 1932AD, Chadwick
discovered that second kind of particle exists in the nucleus, which has no
electrical charge. He named these particles Neutrons.
The atomic volume of an element is the relative atomic mass of the element
divided by is density.
The atomic weight of an element is its relative atomic mass, which is the
ratio of the average mass per atom of the naturally occurring form of an element
to one twelfth (i.e. 1 / 12) of the mass of a carbon-12 atom.
THE MYSTERY OF ATOMIC PARTICLES
Copyright © 2000 Stanley Fay White
Different Concepts of atoms
and atomic particles have existed since before the Greeks and can be traced back
to eras that even preceded the Minoan thalassocracy. Some of the ideas came from
the Far East, others from the Near East. The latter day view of Democritus, (a
Greek), of an atom as the ultimate bit of matter prevailed until the nineteenth
century. Thomson, Rutherford and Bohr changed all that. Thomson showed that
atoms had two different particles. Rutherford showed that atoms were mostly
space. Bohr devised a "planetary" type of an atom with electrons
circulating around a nucleus. Unfortunately, this led to the misconception that
electrons were smaller than nuclei, when in fact the reverse is true.
Nevertheless, the view of Bohr (along with the discoveries of the Curies)
ushered in "modern physics". The world has never been the same since.
Recent cosmological theories reveal
that the universe is made up of atomic particles strung together in various
configurations, rather than a macro universe made up of rocks, water etc. In
spite of the recent intense interest in atomic particles, the nature of said
particles has eluded analysis. There is a reason for this. In dealing with macro
objects like rocks, they can be categorized and experimented upon. Until now
there has been no way to get inside an atomic particle to investigate its nature
Modern physics has been inundated
by higher mathematics. Most natural laws of physics have been reduced to complex
mathematical equations. The age of the computer has intensified this process of
mathematizing and quantifying physical quantities and relationships. Modern
scholarship takes the position that if it can't be quantified it is meaningless,
if it isn't expressed in higher math it is inferior. This works with the results
of experiments. It doesn't work with physical entities that can't be directly
measured. To date there is no way to perform any measurements on the interior of
atomic particles. Some have attempted to get around the problem by stipulating
that an electron has no interior. This sort of works mathematically (Feynman
thought it was silly). Lacking access, it has been difficult to refute this
thesis and others such as protons (at rest) being full of quarks. Faced with
conflicting and highly mathematized views, atomic particles remain a mystery.
A new tool, Inductive Analysis, has
been developed for the express purpose of analyzing the structure of atomic
particles. One of the tenets is: "If it doesn't have a referent, it is
suspect." Mathematical infinity is one such suspect. When you see an
infinity, beware! Contrary to the view of some, atomic particles have a precise
structure that occupies space. This structure is so precise that there is no
known way to distinguish between one atomic particle (of the same class) and
another. This identical structure characteristic is so precise it defies
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
If one had a way of ladling out
atomic particle substance into equal bits, one would find that there is no
theoretical way of measuring to the accuracy of mass we find in atomic
particles. In a particular class of atomic particle, all the electric fields are
identical, all the masses are the same, and the inertia and magnetic fields
react identically when the particle is under motion. For those of us who know
how to measure the radius of atomic particles, the radii turn out to be
identical from one particle to another. Until now we have not had an explanation
for these phenomena It is no wonder that it has taken so long to unravel the
mystery of atomic particle structure.
A NEW APPROACH
There have been many clues along
the way as to the nature of atomic particles. Einstein's equations relating to
matter are algebraic. Newton's laws, and many others relate to all matter,
whatever its chemical composition. There is an obvious oneness of matter
underlying the seeming diversity of macro objects. Avogadro's gas laws apply to
all gasses. The composition problem of atomic structure is resolved by beginning
at the beginning, with the nature of the Primordial Singularity. The entire
universe came from this super particle (singularity). At the time of the
Singularity, the only natural laws that existed were the laws governing the
By elucidating and categorizing
these "first laws", we have the FIRST PRINCIPLES of the universe. In
these FIRST PRINCIPLES we have the irreducible distilled essence of the
universe. The entire universe has been derived from the essence of Primordial
Singularity. This is so for there is no known outside anything that has been
added to the universe since the annihilation of the Primordial Singularity.
Therefore, any stated natural law that is not compatible with the FIRST
PRINCIPLES is false by the reason that it not derivable from FIRST PRINCIPLES.
Knowing this simplifies the ordering of natural laws in the physics knowledge
base. As it is generally realized that the current stated physics knowledge base
is flawed, the application of FIRST PRINCIPLES through Inductive Analysis of the
base will cleanse the base, so that a 'Proper Foundation for Physics" can
INSIDE ATOMIC PARTICLES
It is not true that an atomic
particle is an absolute black box. We have an experiment that reveals what is
inside an atomic particle; what we don't have is any experiment that shows the
structure of "the black box", even though we know what is inside. When
an electron (or proton) collides with its "anti-particle" the
annihilation produces are two identical gamma rays exiting in opposite
directions from the point of collision. The energy of the gamma rays are the
energy equivalent of the masses of the colliding particles. ( ) Except for the
gamma rays, nothing else has ever been observed exiting the collision point.
Therefore, it is fair to say that an atomic particle (near rest velocity)
contains a single gamma ray of the mass equivalence of the atomic particle. In
the parlance of physics, atomic particles are "singularities". For
reasons that are not clear, this fact seems to be on the back burner of current
physics thinking. The advent of lineacs and accelerator rings has proved a
With the new tools of astronomy, (a
raft of new large optical telescopes, radio telescopes, the Hubbell telescope
etc.) we have new ways to probe the nature of atomic particles along with the
mysteries of the physical universe. Neutron stars give us food for thought.
Black holes shred incoming matter and break it down into energy. A consistent
result of the shredding is a "singularity" at the center of black
holes. This is evidence that the nature of the entity at the center of black
holes is similar from one black hole to another All matter is the same, only the
magnitude of the parameters is different. From this perspective, Einstein's
equations clarify the reality.
All matter is equally convertible
into energy. (This can only be so if all atomic particles are composed of the
same thing (energy). Otherwise there would be more than one set of natural laws
that control matter). The laws that control all matter are the same because the
basics of all matter are the same. (We do not currently have a handle on how the
shredded matter is absorbed and converted into one super photon, a singularity)
Newton's laws become clear. All matter responds the same to gravity, inertia
etc. because the underlying nature of all matter is the same. The reason for
this is that all matter has the same basic structure. Matter is composed of
atomic particles, and the atomic particles are composed of gamma rays whose
energy is proportional to the mass of the referenced particle. As the
preponderance of matter is either electrons or protons, the gamma rays that
compose matter are of two values, the energy equivalence of the masses of either
electrons or protons. Black hole phenomena support the fact. All of this
information is background needed to carry out an Inductive Analysis of the
structure of electrons and all atomic particles. Inductive Analysis uses all
verified data, identified by referents; not just the data derived from man made
The facts recited above re the
annihilation products of particle-antiparticle collision have never been
disputed. The acceptance is so widespread that numerous engineers are devising
particle-antiparticle engines for space travel. Even sci-fi TV programs and
movies talk incessantly about matter-antimatter drives. The matter-antimatter
results are not ignored for lack of knowledge. It is not clear why the physics
community has an emotional block on the fact. Perhaps this is one reason the
structure of atomic particles has remained an enigma. One cannot construct a
viable model of something without all the facts. Inductive Analysis revealed
this glaring oversight (ignoring the matter-antimatter experiments) in the
atomic particle database. Unfortunately, the bad habit of using only data that
supports ones position has become commonplace as the record shows.
If we view the atomic particle as a
black box, we see that our simile is not perfect. This black box is not black,
but gray. Electric fields project from it in a uniform manner, one particle to
another. The box has "mass" and it responds to gravity. When the box
is moved (an electron or proton), it generates a predictable magnetic field. The
inertia of the black box is predictable as well, based upon the mass of the box.
Now these things have been known for a long time, without solving the mystery of
the box, so these facts alone will not resolve the problem. However, we know
that any solution to the black box problem must be compatible with the above
parameters, or the solution is flawed. This is the technique of Inductive
Analysis. All facts to be tested must be compatible and consistent with FIRST
PRINCIPLES, be verifiable and consistent with the known knowledge base and be
repeatable in order to be a solution to an unknown problem.
Beginning with First Principles and
employing Inductive Analysis has proved to be the key that has unlocked the
mystery of atomic composition. (The astonishing thing was that having the
structure of the electron revealed the structure of the Primordial Singularity,
which it turns out has the same structure as an electron (or any atomic
particle), except that in the case of the Primordial Singularity, the magnitudes
of the values are those of the entire universe (mass etc.)) If we can conclude
that all atomic particles are "black boxes" with a gamma ray trapped
inside, for the first time we have a glimpse of the inner workings of atomic
particles. This was the starting point for the analysis that solved the enigma
of atomic particles. Papers have been written (and are attached) that show
first, how the processes of the analysis were carried out and finally how the
knowledge gained from this initial analysis led the way to the solution of other
atomic particle enigmas, such as the structure of neutrons and the various
atomic nuclei. Having solved these problems, it was possible to construct a more
realistic view of atoms, beginning with the fact that orbiters do not radiate.
It has been an amazing adventure, with many surprises along the way.
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